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Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf Download: A Guide to the Oldest Known Literary Work in History
If you are interested in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, you might want to download Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf, a translation of the Babylonian creation epic. Enuma Elish, which means "When on high" in Akkadian, is a poem that narrates how the god Marduk defeated the primordial chaos represented by Tiamat, the dragon goddess of the salt sea, and created the world and the human race.
Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf Download
Enuma Elish is considered to be the oldest known literary work in history, dating back to the 18th or 17th century BCE. It was originally written in cuneiform script on seven clay tablets, which were discovered in the ruins of the library of Ashurbanipal, the last great king of Assyria, in Nineveh. The poem was recited annually during the New Year festival in Babylon, when Marduk's statue was paraded through the city and his temple, Esagila.
Enuma Elish is not only a fascinating mythological story, but also a valuable source of information about the culture, religion, and cosmology of ancient Mesopotamia. It reflects the political and theological changes that occurred when Babylon rose to power and made Marduk its supreme deity, replacing the older Sumerian gods such as Enlil and Anu. It also shows how the Mesopotamians conceived of the universe as a series of concentric spheres separated by water, and how they believed that humans were created to serve the gods and maintain order in the world.
If you want to read this ancient masterpiece for yourself, you can download Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf from Archive.org , a website that offers free access to millions of books, movies, music, and other digital media. You can also find other translations and commentaries on Enuma Elish online, as well as compare it with other creation myths from different cultures and traditions.
In this article, you will learn more about the content and structure of Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf, as well as some of the themes and motifs that it explores. You will also find out how Enuma Elish influenced other ancient and modern works of literature and art, and how it relates to the contemporary issues of environmentalism and human rights.
The Content and Structure of Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf
Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf consists of seven chapters, each corresponding to one of the original clay tablets. The first chapter introduces the primordial gods Apsu, the fresh water, and Tiamat, the salt water, who give birth to a generation of younger gods, such as Lahmu, Lahamu, Anshar, Kishar, Anu, and Ea. These gods are noisy and restless, disturbing the peace of their parents. Apsu decides to destroy them, but Tiamat opposes him. Ea learns of Apsu's plan and kills him, taking his place as the ruler of the gods.
The second chapter describes how Tiamat, enraged by the death of her husband, creates an army of monsters and appoints her son Kingu as their leader. She gives him the Tablet of Destinies, a powerful symbol of authority. The other gods are afraid of Tiamat and her forces, and seek a champion who can defeat her. They turn to Marduk, the son of Ea and Damkina, who agrees to fight Tiamat on the condition that he becomes the supreme god.
The third chapter recounts how Marduk prepares for the battle by creating his weapons and his chariot. He also creates the four winds to stir up Tiamat's waters. He then confronts Tiamat and challenges her to a duel. Tiamat accepts and attacks him with her mouth open. Marduk shoots an arrow into her mouth, splitting her body in two.
The fourth chapter narrates how Marduk uses Tiamat's corpse to create the heavens and the earth. He also sets up the constellations, the seasons, and the calendar. He then takes the Tablet of Destinies from Kingu and imprisons him along with the other monsters. He presents his creation to the other gods, who praise him and build him a temple in Babylon.
The fifth chapter depicts how Marduk organizes the cosmos and assigns duties to the gods. He also creates humans from Kingu's blood and bone, giving them the task of serving the gods and providing them with offerings. He then names his fifty titles and attributes, reflecting his power and glory.
The sixth chapter describes how the gods celebrate Marduk's victory and his kingship by holding a banquet in his temple. They also recite his names and praise his deeds.
The seventh chapter repeats Marduk's names and praises in a different order, emphasizing his supremacy over all creation.
The Themes and Motifs of Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf
Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf explores various themes and motifs that are common in ancient Mesopotamian literature and culture, such as:
The conflict between order and chaos. The poem portrays the struggle between Marduk and Tiamat as a cosmic battle between the forces of order and chaos, civilization and wilderness, light and darkness. Marduk represents the order that the gods impose on the world, while Tiamat represents the chaos that threatens to destroy it. By defeating Tiamat, Marduk establishes his authority and ensures the stability of the cosmos.
The divine kingship. The poem also reflects the political and religious ideology of Babylon, which claimed that Marduk was the supreme god and the king of the gods. Marduk's victory over Tiamat grants him the right to rule over all creation, and his fifty names symbolize his attributes and functions. Marduk's kingship is also linked to the kingship of Babylon, which was seen as his earthly representative and protector. The poem legitimizes the power and prestige of Babylon and its king, who were expected to uphold justice and maintain order in the world.
The creation of humans. The poem offers an explanation of how humans came to be and what their purpose is. According to Enuma Elish, humans were created from the blood and bone of Kingu, Tiamat's son and consort, who was killed by Marduk. Humans were made to serve the gods and provide them with offerings, labor, and worship. Humans were also given intelligence and free will, which made them capable of both good and evil. The poem implies that humans have a dual nature, being both divine and mortal, noble and sinful.
The Influence and Relevance of Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf
Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf has influenced and inspired many other works of literature and art, both ancient and modern, such as:
The Hebrew Bible. Many scholars have noted the similarities and differences between Enuma Elish and the biblical account of creation in Genesis. For example, both stories begin with a watery chaos and end with a divine rest. Both stories also feature a division of the waters, a creation of the luminaries, and a creation of humans. However, there are also significant differences, such as the monotheism of Genesis versus the polytheism of Enuma Elish, the transcendence of God versus the immanence of Marduk, and the dignity of humans versus the servitude of humans.
The Greek Mythology. Some scholars have suggested that Enuma Elish may have influenced some aspects of the Greek mythology, especially the story of Zeus and his battle against the Titans. For example, both stories involve a succession of generations of gods, a conflict between a storm god and a dragon-like figure, and a creation of the world from the body of a defeated enemy.
The Modern Literature and Art. Enuma Elish has also inspired many modern writers and artists who have adapted or referenced its themes and motifs in their works. For example, J.R.R. Tolkien's The Silmarillion contains a creation myth that echoes some elements of Enuma Elish, such as the role of music in shaping the world, the conflict between light and darkness, and the rebellion of a powerful being against the supreme creator. H.P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos also draws on Enuma Elish for its depiction of ancient cosmic entities that predate and threaten the human civilization. In addition, Enuma Elish has been adapted into various forms of media, such as comics, novels, films, games, and music.
Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf is also relevant to some contemporary issues and debates, such as:
The Environmentalism. Enuma Elish can be seen as a reflection of the ancient Mesopotamian worldview that valued order over chaos, civilization over wilderness, and human domination over nature. However, this worldview can also be challenged by considering the perspective of Tiamat and her allies, who represent the natural forces that resist human exploitation and destruction. Enuma Elish can thus invite us to rethink our relationship with nature and our responsibility for its preservation.
The Human Rights. Enuma Elish can be seen as a justification of the social hierarchy and inequality that characterized the ancient Mesopotamian society, where humans were created to serve the gods and their earthly representatives, such as kings and priests. However, this justification can also be questioned by examining the origin and purpose of humans in Enuma Elish, who are made from the blood and bone of a rebellious god who opposed Marduk's tyranny. Enuma Elish can thus encourage us to recognize our dignity and freedom as human beings and our solidarity with those who suffer oppression and injustice.
The Conclusion of Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf
Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf is a remarkable work of ancient Mesopotamian literature that tells the story of how Marduk, the god of Babylon, defeated Tiamat, the goddess of chaos, and created the world and the human race. It is not only a fascinating mythological tale, but also a rich source of information about the culture, religion, and cosmology of ancient Mesopotamia. It also reflects the political and theological changes that occurred when Babylon rose to power and made Marduk its supreme deity.
Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf has also influenced and inspired many other works of literature and art, both ancient and modern, such as the Hebrew Bible, the Greek Mythology, and the modern literature and art. It is also relevant to some contemporary issues and debates, such as environmentalism and human rights. Enuma Elish Poema Completo Pdf is thus a timeless masterpiece that deserves to be read and appreciated by anyone who is interested in the origins and meanings of life. d282676c82